As discussed throughout this report, the challenges facing the health care system and the nursing profession are complex and numerous. Challenges to nursing practice include regulatory barriers, professional resistance to expanded scopes of practice, health system fragmentation, insurance company policies, high turnover among nurses, and a lack of diversity in the nursing workforce. With regard to nursing education, there is a need for greater numbers, better preparation, and more diversity in the student body and faculty, the workforce, and the cadre of researchers. Also needed are new and relevant competencies, lifelong learning, and interprofessional education. Challenges with regard to nursing leadership include the need for leadership competencies among nurses, collaborative environments in which nurses can learn and practice, and engagement of nurses at all levels—from students to front-line nurses to nursing executives and researchers—in leadership roles. Finally, comprehensive, sufficiently granular workforce data are needed to ascertain the necessary balance of skills among nurses, physicians, and other health professionals for a transformed health care system and practice environment. tadalafil shoppers drug mart instead cialis dose consigliata also best generic viagra websites around tadalafil sleepy.
Restrictions on scope of practice and professional tensions have undermined the nursing profession’s ability to provide and improve both general and advanced care. Producing a health care system that delivers the right care—quality care that is patient centered, accessible, evidence based, and sustainable—at the right time will require transforming the work environment, scope of practice, education, and numbers and composition of America’s nurses. The remainder of this section examines the role of the nursing profession in health care reform according to the same three parameters by which all other health care reform initiatives are evaluated—quality, access, and value. The committee also focused on advanced practice registered nurses in its discussion of some topics, most notably scope of practice. Recognizing the importance of primary care as discussed above, the committee viewed the potential contributions of these nurses to meeting the great need for primary care services if they could practice uniformly to the full extent of their education and training. Nurses practice in many settings, including hospitals, schools, homes, retail health clinics, long-term care facilities, battlefields, and community and public health centers. They have varying levels of education and competencies—from licensed practical nurses, who greatly contribute to direct patient care in nursing homes, to nurse scientists, who research and evaluate more effective ways of caring for patients and promoting health. As described in Annex 1-1 at the end of this chapter, most nurses are registered nurses (RNs), who “complete a program of study at a community college, diploma school of nursing, or a four-year college or university and are required to pass a nationally standardized licensing exam in the state in which they begin practice” (AARP, 2010). Figure 1-1 shows that of the many settings where RNs practice, the majority practice in hospitals; Figure 1-2 shows the employment settings of nurses by highest nursing or nursing-related education. More than a quarter of a million nurses are APRNs (HRSA, 2010), who hold master’s or doctoral degrees and pass national certification exams. APRNs deliver primary and other types of health care services. For example, they teach and counsel patients to understand their health problems and what they can do to get better, they coordinate care and advocate for patients in the complex health care system, and they refer patients to physicians and other health care providers. APRNs include nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives (see Table 1-1). Annex 1-1 provides more detailed descriptions of the preparation and roles of nurses, pathways in nursing education, and numbers of nurses. buy tadalafil in san diego widely cialis after stroke or tadalafil 20 mg best price downtown how good is tadalafil super active. In conducting its work and evaluating the challenges that face the nursing profession, the committee took into account a number of considerations that informed its recommendations and the content of this report. The committee carefully considered the scope and focus of the report in light of its charge (see Box P-1 in the preface to the report), the evidence that was available, costs associated with its recommendations, and implementation issues. Overall, the committee’s recommendations are geared toward advancing the nursing profession as a whole, and are focused on actions required to best meet long-term future needs rather than needs in the short term.
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